The Longest-Running Evolution Experiment

If you ran evolution all over again, would you get humans? How repeatable is ? This video is sponsored by @BountyBrand.

Special thanks to Prof. Richard Lenski and team for showing me around the lab - it is an honor to be able to witness and document such a historic science experiment.
Thanks to Dr Zachary Blount for the help with research and setting up the competition time-lapse, Dr Nkrumah Grant for microscope images of the long-term line cells @NkrumahGrant
Devin Lake, Kate Bellgowan, and Dr. Minako Izutsu for being part of this video. Long Live the LTEE!

LTEE website - myxo.css.msu.edu/ecoli/index.html
Intro footage courtesy of the Kishony Lab - kishony.technion.ac.il
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References:
Lenski, R. E., & Travisano, M. (1994). Dynamics of adaptation and diversification: a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(15), 6808-6814. - ve42.co/Lenski1994

Lenski, R. E., Rose, M. R., Simpson, S. C., & Tadler, S. C. (1991). Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. I. Adaptation and divergence during 2,000 generations. The American Naturalist, 138(6), 1315-1341. - ve42.co/Lenski1991

Good, B. H., McDonald, M. J., Barrick, J. E., Lenski, R. E., & Desai, M. M. (2017). The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations. Nature, 551(7678), 45-50. - ve42.co/Good2017

Blount, Z. D., Borland, C. Z., & Lenski, R. E. (2008). Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(23), 7899-7906. - ve42.co/Blount2008

Blount, Z. D., Lenski, R. E., & Losos, J. B. (2018). Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying life’s tape. Science, 362(6415). - ve42.co/Blount2018

Wiser, M. J., Ribeck, N., & Lenski, R. E. (2013). Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations. Science, 342(6164), 1364-1367. - ve42.co/Wiser2013

N, Scharping. (2019). How a 30-Year Experiment Has Fundamentally Changed Our View of How Evolution Works. Discover - ve42.co/Scharping

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Research and Writing by by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Casey Rentz
Animation by Iván Tello
Filmed by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Raquel Nuno
Edited by Derek Muller
Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Thumbnail image courtesy of the Kishony Lab
Produced by Casey Rentz
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Reacties

  • And everyone wonder how we get to the Fauci Ouchie and the bio-terrorism we going through now. Starts like this right here

    Climb HighClimb HighUur geleden
  • This is cool to watch however a non-scientist here would think that these bacteria are adapting not evolving. Meaning these bacteria didn’t grow a tail or change their physical attributes to become something else. The closest they came was that they introduced something new to their diet. A far cry from physical change. My kid decided to try mushrooms last week but he’s still my son. Definitely cool but not what I think defines evolution.

    Paul DoughtyPaul Doughty10 uur geleden
    • "would think that these bacteria are adapting not evolving" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS95 uur geleden
  • Bounty? Really? Bizarre.

    Robert CumminsRobert Cummins17 uur geleden
  • Promoting paper towels is pretty dumb. You're trying to make people afraid of doing something that was never dangerous with a very unscientific experiment, and promoting an unnecessary product that's bad for the environment. I'm disappointed that a science channel I respect would accept a sponsor like this.

    Taliesin RiverTaliesin River21 uur geleden
  • So, is this theory can apply to viruses too? If so, people can estimate how frequently Covid-19 will change per generation in theory?

    Rin倫Rin倫22 uur geleden
  • This is absolutely amazing, I am fascinated by evolution. I want to see more Also I'm surprised you advertised bounty. There is nothing wrong with a little bacteria and germaphobia is indicative of a disconnection with the earth. Let's reduce and reuse, not encourage waste due to neurotic fears.

    Kyle MeccaKyle MeccaDag geleden
    • yes, very disappointing. Especially his completely unscientific 'experiment' to prove why they're useful.

      Taliesin RiverTaliesin River20 uur geleden
  • So this is what will actually kill us all?

    Marge N.Marge N.Dag geleden
  • I also use paper towels but I use the less expensive brands

    relentlessmadmanrelentlessmadmanDag geleden
    • does any one make paper towels from hemp yet????

      relentlessmadmanrelentlessmadmanDag geleden
  • My question is would there ever be a singularity that would happen during the evolutionary process

    Danny RamirezDanny RamirezDag geleden
  • What a brilliant universe G-D Created, even a tiny bacterium is programed to evolve, WOW!!!

    mark greenmark greenDag geleden
  • Eat E. coli, Jonathan Wells!

    Rhianne MollRhianne MollDag geleden
  • 11:15 I got goosebumps here.

    АрсеналАрсеналDag geleden
  • Sponsored by paper towels... How about you stop promoting non eco-friendly products?

    Rhadoo RootBwoyRhadoo RootBwoy2 dagen geleden
  • gloves??

    Thom Of Hillbilly HavenThom Of Hillbilly Haven2 dagen geleden
  • @Veritasium, you might suggest the professor and his students to use mipar (mipar.us) to count those bacteria. Counting by hand is not necessary nowadays.

    Heinz DontbotherHeinz Dontbother2 dagen geleden
  • Could you try this with various antibiotics? seperated from each other in the same fashion ? Did you try bacteria from the Ganges river? I heated that there is a antibiotics plant dumping these batches of bacteria in the water…

    BPBP2 dagen geleden
  • would be funny if one day thes ebacteria became small animals with eyes

    Tom shibaTom shiba2 dagen geleden
  • The smartest ad integration

    Terry CaldwellTerry Caldwell2 dagen geleden
  • Wow, this is real nice science, love it! Keep going with you works its really cool. :D

    chuck sch.chuck sch.2 dagen geleden
  • Natural selection and competitive selection is also just a imaginative hypothesis not proved yet.

    pkr pdlpkr pdl2 dagen geleden
    • "not proved yet." Proof isn't a thing in science, science operates on evidence and degrees of confidence. And natural selection has more evidence than just about any other theory in science.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS92 dagen geleden
  • This experiment support adaptation within same species. Not evolution. Can scientists evolve this bacteria into multi-cellular organism? That will be wonderful. No-one can do that. Darwin theory is just an observation. A hypothesis.

    pkr pdlpkr pdl2 dagen geleden
    • @pkr pdl Sorry, but I have no idea what it is you are trying to ask me here. Feel free to try again.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS92 dagen geleden
    • @Crispr CAS9 bacteria do have so short life span. What if this kind of experiment continues to evolve to higher genus and if possible family?

      pkr pdlpkr pdl2 dagen geleden
    • "This experiment support adaptation within same species. Not evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "Can scientists evolve this bacteria into multi-cellular organism?" Not with this experimental setup, but other experiments have produced multicellular bacteria.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS92 dagen geleden
  • Wait, so if I get the ending there. Life shows a capacity to transcend entropy?

    Matthew SalvatarMatthew Salvatar2 dagen geleden
    • Define "Entropy." And nothing in the universe (flowing chain reactions) transcends the universe.

      To Serve ManTo Serve ManDag geleden
  • When did Adam Ragusea start doin science content ?

    DanishDanish3 dagen geleden
  • According to the evolution theory they were supposed to develop into a multicellular organism or something. And this is what we do not see.

    michaelsimkinmichaelsimkin3 dagen geleden
    • "According to the evolution theory they were supposed to develop into a multicellular organism or something." So you're saying you don't know anything about evolutionary theory? Fun.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS93 dagen geleden
  • Veritasium FAKE for money: big experiment setup to pitch paper towels - microprint disclamer in the end says that experiment is "not representative". Not the the sort of statistical significance that I've grown used to wrt this channel. Oh, and you should always use recycled material or wash. There's always room for a couple kitchen cloths in the washer.

    erikfinneganerikfinnegan3 dagen geleden
  • I'm really concerned about how they handle bacteria... No gloves, just a slight "Touch" in the fire and "importante" the material and bacteria are being exposed to Open air...

    David KellenDavid Kellen3 dagen geleden
  • It's all well and good until the germs can transfer through xenonite

    Tyray3PTyray3P3 dagen geleden
  • 1st gen e coli: we cant eat that its deadly! 1000000+ gen e coli: u wut m8?!

    Cedric VelardeCedric Velarde3 dagen geleden
  • Crematoriums are for organisms that are already dead... Those furnaces look more like something found at Dachau

    A Real Life DogA Real Life Dog4 dagen geleden
  • *how to create a supervirus*

    МАТЬ-РОССИЯМАТЬ-РОССИЯ4 dagen geleden
  • This is a highly controlled environment. Compare the competitive advantage of the newest and oldest colonies in a natural world where innumerable other factors weigh in to survival. It may very well be that the older organisms are better able to survive. This is analogous to selective breeding that creates an animal with desired characteristics but is otherwise less capable of overall survival compared to its ancestors. I'm afraid this teaches me nothing.

    gyamljgyamlj4 dagen geleden
    • "I'm afraid this teaches me nothing." Says more about you than the experiment, I think.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS93 dagen geleden
  • Did anyone else notice the reference from the movie “The 13th Warrior” on the fridge? Timestamp 7:50 minute

    AshethoramaAshethorama4 dagen geleden
  • YES! Nothing out is not in and everything out is in ;-)) 1.5 (oo.000) is human program given by life = love = what you are in need of, who (do you) are (you)? I took my ABO once more!

    Seven LigthsonSeven Ligthson4 dagen geleden
  • Queen Elizabeth I (of England) cooked a fruitcake for members of parliament to celebrate its opening. A bit was saved to be included in the next parliament's opening, etc. So now, when parliament begins its new season, the members are privileged to have a bit of cake cooked by Shakespeare's favorite monarch! [i have not fact-checked this because i don't want to find out if it is not true]

    Christopher InmanChristopher Inman4 dagen geleden
  • Mad scientist fell into bacteria gacha hell...

    maruftimmaruftim5 dagen geleden
  • Is he referring to Confirmation Bias or is it something else?

    AJ TAJ T5 dagen geleden
  • This episode was great! Really interesting.

    ZedCactusZedCactus5 dagen geleden
  • disappoinited that derek is now hawking that idea that greater bacterial spread is somehow dirtier, and that you should use disposible environment wrecking paper over washable cloths.

    Lief BambergLief Bamberg5 dagen geleden
  • Imagine being the chad bacteria to first eat the citrate

    WowZersWowZers5 dagen geleden
  • 42, ¿coincidence? I think not

    Rodrigo SeguraRodrigo Segura5 dagen geleden
  • Prof Richard Lenski has the same accent as Rich Evans and it's throwing me off.

    FrenchnostalgiqueFrenchnostalgique5 dagen geleden
  • Me seeing 1% selection first hand: "So that's what the aliens are doing to our universe and what the Great Filter could be."

    AzuriumAzurium5 dagen geleden
    • Context: imagine that at 7:30 he's talking about intergalactic species expanding across the universe.

      AzuriumAzurium5 dagen geleden
  • The educated dumbasses still call it evolution. After 70000+ generations the bacteria is still producing bacteria. The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria. Why is it so hard to get un biased conclusions? The only thing that has been observed is ADAPTATION not evolution.

    Christian412 AmericaChristian412 America6 dagen geleden
    • "The educated dumbasses still call it evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria" If they produced something other than bacteria, it would disprove evolution. You understand that, right?

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS95 dagen geleden
  • Nah, if the flask breaks we become the solution to the experiment.

    SuperSonic BoomSuperSonic Boom6 dagen geleden
  • It’s called mutation or adaptation. NOT EVOLUTION! The bacteria will always remain bacteria, just more resistant.

    Michael KurekMichael Kurek6 dagen geleden
    • Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS95 dagen geleden
  • IT'S GOD! LOL

    Guy FoxGuy Fox6 dagen geleden
  • I am forever grateful to Dr IGUDIA on NLflow who cured me from herpes with his herbal medication, you are so real and trusted.

    Samaila AbdullahiSamaila Abdullahi6 dagen geleden
  • Beautiful video. Biosciences are a rich hunting ground for new videos.

    RD2564RD25647 dagen geleden
  • So...when do they turn into monkeys??? Can monkeys evolve into bacteria???

    David BlankDavid Blank7 dagen geleden
    • "So...when do they turn into monkeys" Based on evolutionary science, never. If you think evolution suggests otherwise, you don't understand evolution.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS96 dagen geleden
  • well don't judge the Qu when they do this to us :^)

    DeadEndFrogDeadEndFrog7 dagen geleden
  • I see you evolving from young youtuber :D

    lalit pallalit pal7 dagen geleden
  • A million bacterial monkeys typing on a million bacterial type-writers.... One of them finally wrote the opening to hamlet

    wildstar2424242424wildstar24242424247 dagen geleden
  • 13:48 A couple more generations and they’ll be growing eyes and noses.

    Mike TacosMike Tacos7 dagen geleden
  • Then someone breaks the glass.

    Mike TacosMike Tacos7 dagen geleden
  • I'll bet you I can make a dog "evolve" so that it will CRAVE something that canines would NEVER consume if left to their own tastes(sp?)...

    Chris KollChris Koll8 dagen geleden
    • what?

      mwuahamwuaha7 dagen geleden
  • Are tests like this being done on viruses?

    TrutherTruther8 dagen geleden
  • So what you are saying is, after 75,000 generations, it's just better bacteria, but in the same amount of generations we went from monkey to man? Why didn't it macro evolve?

    FuriousGeezerFuriousGeezer8 dagen geleden
    • @Crispr CAS9 fair enough! I am still seeing no evidence of macro evolution, but that timeline sure makes it look like more of a possibility. My timeline was clearly off

      FuriousGeezerFuriousGeezer7 dagen geleden
    • @FuriousGeezer "it's a long time from bacteria to monkey" Monkeys are not descended from bacteria. "We get what a billion or so years?" 3.5 billion from first life to complex life, another 100 million to get on land, another 150 million for mammals, another 100 million for primates, another 50 for humans. Approximately.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS97 dagen geleden
    • @Crispr CAS9 Both are human though, yes. I poorly worded it.

      FuriousGeezerFuriousGeezer7 dagen geleden
    • @Crispr CAS9 it's a long time from bacteria to monkey and again to man. Not sure there is time for that🤷🏼‍♂️. We get what a billion or so years?

      FuriousGeezerFuriousGeezer7 dagen geleden
    • In the same number of generations, our ancestors went from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Both of those are humans.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS97 dagen geleden
  • so how long til one of the containers crawls off? :P

    NeileyNeiley8 dagen geleden
  • using the same needle for different flask samples???!!

    sfsf8 dagen geleden
  • The human scale equivalent of this would be alien abduction encounters, where aliens continuously sample humans as they observe our evolution.

    Bangs CutterBangs Cutter8 dagen geleden
  • Shouldn't forget all the generations of students who evolved the professor's knowledge and status! 🧐

    Brad ShymonBrad Shymon8 dagen geleden
  • Wait. She wasn’t wearing gloves. Am I missing something?

    realitycheck2001realitycheck20018 dagen geleden
  • Ok thats stretch of a comparison. The mutations of a one cell bacterium are quite different than the mutations that would have to occur for an ape like creature to transform into what man is today. I don't care how many million years you tack on to it.

    Gary CLarkGary CLark8 dagen geleden
    • @Gary CLark "viable offspring means to me that the offspring can then reproduce." Then you are looking for the word 'fertile'. Viable just means 'living', so the offspring is born and can survive. "The sturddlefish is sterile like the mule" That's unclear at this point. They won't hit sexual maturity for a decade, so until then it's just guess work. Also, mules are not always sterile, just usually, and the overwhelming majority of hybrids are more fertile than mules. "Do we have empirical evidence of this?" Yes, it's how reproduction works. "Is there any physical evidence to show these ancestral lineages?" The fossil record. "but I still have issue with the assumption that an organism of one species is the inherent ancestor of another species." Good news, we don't assume any single organism is an ancestor to another species. The theory operates at the level of populations, not individuals. 'Ancestral to' usually just means that a fossil population is more closely related to the actual ancestors of a modern population than to anything else, not that it literally contained the ancestors. "We don't have evidence of one species evolving into another species in the fossil record or in todays timeline" Very technically, a population becomes a different species from its ancestors when people say it does, because species is a human label. What we have extensive evidence for is populations diverging morphologically over time, and such morphological divergence is highly correlated with getting labeled as a separate species by people. But using a more colloquial understanding of 'one species evolving into another', we have plenty of examples. Homo erectus to Homo sapiens, for one. We also have really great records for the evolution of horses, whales, birds and several other groups of dinosaurs, a huge number of fish lineages, and countless invertebrates. More or less every major transition is covered. "or in todays timeline." There are dozens of laboratory examples of speciation, and several examples in the wild.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS916 uur geleden
    • @Crispr CAS9 viable offspring means to me that the offspring can then reproduce. The sturddlefish is sterile like the mule. A hybrid is a hybrid and not a species for a reason. Your definition if I understand correctly relating to phylogeny in taxonomy that classifies organisms base on closely related characteristics. So you assume that because there are shared characteristics in the tree of life taxonomy of generations that the said species have a common ancestor. Do we have empirical evidence of this? Is there any physical evidence to show these ancestral lineages? I believe taxonomy to be a great way of grouping organisms in a way to understand common characteristics of organisms but I still have issue with the assumption that an organism of one species is the inherent ancestor of another species. We don't have evidence of one species evolving into another species in the fossil record or in todays timeline. It's a definition that proves to much.

      Gary CLarkGary CLark23 uur geleden
    • @Gary CLark Definition from your most recent comment (my emphasis): " a category of biological classification ranking immediately below the genus or subgenus, comprising related organisms or *populations* potentially capable of *interbreeding*" Definition from your previous comment: "the ability to reproduce viable offspring" You'll notice that the Webster's definition indicates that it is referencing populations, delimited by potential interbreeding within that population. Your definition makes no indication of populations or how to delimit within. By your definition, every fertile organism is a separate species, which would obviously be nonsense. The Webster's definition, as it happens, is also wrong since it would mean there are no species of bacteria, which is obviously nonsense. And it would mean that paddlefish and sturgeons are the same species, in spite of being in different families. They would have been better to say something like: "a category of biological classification ranking immediately below the genus or subgenus, comprising related organisms or populations [sharing some set of characteristics, (e.g. the ability to interbreed).]" There are many common species concepts in biology, and none are universally accepted. Webster's decided to use only one of them, which is problematic, but then again they are not writing for a scientific audience. "What is your definition." Species are hypotheses that populations delimited by some metric(s) are monophyletic with respect to ancestry, and that no monophyletic subclade(s) of those populations can be delimited by the same metric(s). The resulting population's monophyly can then be tested by other delimitation metrics producing either concordant or discordant results. "Now I think that your just saying stuff to say stuff." Language is a tricky thing, and must be used with care. Especially when discussing complex topics. I use my words in very specific ways to convey very specific meanings, and I assume that others do the same. It is possible I did not respond to the meaning you intended but I can only respond to the meaning I understand, not necessarily the one you intend.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS9Dag geleden
    • @Crispr CAS9 websters dictionary : a category of biological classification ranking immediately below the genus or subgenus, comprising related organisms or populations potentially capable of interbreeding, and being designated by a binomial that consists of the name of a genus followed by a Latin or latinized uncapitalized noun or adjective agreeing grammatically with the genus name. What is your definition. Now I think that your just saying stuff to say stuff.

      Gary CLarkGary CLarkDag geleden
    • @Gary CLark "definition of a species is the ability to reproduce viable offspring" That is not a definition of species at all, and certainly not the way the word is used in biological science. "I would argue there is proof in science or rahter evidence if you want to call that" Since proof and evidence are not synonyms, this is not a question of preference. One is correct, the other isn't. There is no proof in science. "organized randomly through mutation in a way to create vision." The organization is by selection, which is non-random. Mutations just produce the variation that selection can act on. "how do we know it's random" Because we know how mutations work, to a reasonable degree of accuracy. "Could it not be hormonal?" Hormonal differences can cause differences in fitness, but what causes the differences in hormones? To the best of my knowledge, all differences in hormones are either differences in genetics or differences in environment acting on genetics. And here we are talking about a subset of the population with a differential hormonal response when exposed to the same environment as the rest of the population, so it can *only* be the underlying genetics that explains it. "or that the organism sensing something is changing" Let's say this, or any of the rest of what you suggest happens: the question is 'how is it happening in *some* members of the population and not others?' Is there an answer other than genetics available?

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS92 dagen geleden
  • Still waiting. When did bacteria have gain in function/information and become a dog? Nowhere in the world does that occur. Besides all fossils having soft cell tissues in them is clear and abundant evidence evolution does not occur. There are not enough trillions and quadrillions of years for "mutations" required to have gained in function as soft cell tissues have how long a life? Your experiment does nothing but proves the existence of a "pre-programmed will to survive" or immunity as your body posses. Mankind did not evolve from apes or will they evolve into something other than humans. Transitional fossils? Where?

    Chris MChris M9 dagen geleden
    • @Chris M "That is the events evolution proposes." No, it isn't.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS98 dagen geleden
    • @Crispr CAS9 That is the events evolution proposes.

      Chris MChris M8 dagen geleden
    • "When did bacteria [...] become a dog?" If bacteria became dogs, that would disprove evolution. You understand that, right?

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS98 dagen geleden
  • E.Colocaust :(

    Vinícius MVinícius M9 dagen geleden
  • Isn't it possible to try and make bacteria evolve into eating stuff we treat as garbage ? Like idk all the "bad" gases etc. Could solve a lot of problems

    Chris CarriereChris Carriere9 dagen geleden
  • I hate to mention this, but unless you are composting your paper towels, use re-usable microfiber cloths that you can throw in the washer. I use them occasionally, but rarely for cleaning.

    Stephanie HyattStephanie Hyatt9 dagen geleden
  • 12:31 ... I 100% read Gattaca haha

    Ismael AbufonIsmael Abufon9 dagen geleden
  • The lucky 1% gets to reproduce..... like the super rich haha

    Ismael AbufonIsmael Abufon9 dagen geleden
  • Space itself is the thing that is evolving. All the matter, energy and radiation that exists in the universe at one time fit into something the size of a soccer ball or perhaps a football stadium. It all came from space. It is all here to benefit space. Space would not be as expansive as it is without the matter and energy it created in less than one second.

    Peter SmoyerPeter Smoyer9 dagen geleden
  • I could sit down and talk with that guy for days lol. Very interesting and informative. If I could meet him I'd have to thank him for his work

    Antisocial AtheistAntisocial Atheist10 dagen geleden
  • The best example of this kind of research is a really old story by the author of 'Game of Thrones' George R.R Martin. It's one of his best. It's a short story called 'Sandkings'. There is the book on youtube. Also the outerlimits video also on youtube. Sorry I can't put up links you'll have to search youtube. Very scary one to read. I suspect you will like it. muhahaha

    Plum AmazingPlum Amazing10 dagen geleden
  • When the music kicked in I got a wave of nostalgia. I saw your source, but what it reminded me of was the Majora's Mask Milk Bar Theme. The most simultaneously upbeat and sorrowful music I can think of right now. Only the first 5 or so notes of your music matched the Theme, but it was enough to spark my memory.

    FalsimerFalsimer10 dagen geleden
  • that transfer process was suprisingly lax! :o i would’ve thought you’d want to do this under suction cabinet with purified atmosphere and such.

    Benjamin MárkusBenjamin Márkus10 dagen geleden
  • “33 years ago, even on weekends ever since ..” Bacteria are annoyingly hard workers.

    sokin jonsokin jon10 dagen geleden
  • Perhaps this is adaptability? Quiet possible that bacteria have different (higher) adaptability potential then higher animals?. The bacteria still remained "bacteria" at the end, even after 30 years relentless "experimentation", and did no really "evolve" into a new species? Am I missing something?

    mbbs2008mbbs200810 dagen geleden
  • This is a great experiment in micro evolution and also acts as an experiment in macro evolution as well, if macro evolution were possible there would be signs after 70k generations but, that is not the case. No matter how resilient or mutated these samples are they are still E. coli bacteria and not E. coli/??? Or something completely different.

    mike powersmike powers10 dagen geleden
    • stove, etc. It's WAY too wasteful to use paper towels! SHAME on you, for promoting such wastefulness!!

      sokin jonsokin jon10 dagen geleden
  • So this is what Chase is doing these days. Decided he liked the red-head look, too.

    jonnyjazzzjonnyjazzz10 dagen geleden
  • Evolution really isn't true devolution or decay is much more realistic

    Emmanuel NEmmanuel N10 dagen geleden
  • Where are the damn gloves?

    Tom JamesTom James10 dagen geleden
  • This video was amazing. I was hooked from the beginning.

    Máté ÓcsaiMáté Ócsai10 dagen geleden
  • bounty blew my mind

    Roberto Serrini • The TravelclastRoberto Serrini • The Travelclast10 dagen geleden
  • It seems dangerous to me learning bacteria to survive antibiotics

    Ad LakerveldAd Lakerveld10 dagen geleden
  • This is a perfect plot for a disaster movie

    X17X1710 dagen geleden
  • why 42 though?

    X17X1710 dagen geleden
  • This is the great experiment Richard Dawkins describes in his book _The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution_!

    betaneptunebetaneptune10 dagen geleden
  • As far as I understand the environment in this experiment is strictly controlled with constant and optimal temperature and nutritional content. There are no other species present. E.coli to grow faster in such an environment is most likely explained by the fact that these bacteria evolve to spend less energy and time to adapt to different temperatures, nutritional shortages (ex. storing carbohydrates), and competing with other species, allowing them to concentrate all metabolic activity on growth and reproduction. Thus, the "constant improvement" proposed by the researcher is questionable. This is probably not an improvement, it is only an action of increasing the activity of only one vital metabolic function (growth by using glucose) at the expense of others (adaptation to temperature, nutritional shortage, competition, etc.).

    Ezgi UmutEzgi Umut10 dagen geleden
    • @Ezgi Umut "My comment is not a claim" Yes it is. You claimed that something was the most likely explanation, you must support this. You've also made a collection of claims in your new comment, and provided support for none of them. You're just making stuff up, no one cares.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS99 dagen geleden
    • @Crispr CAS9 My comment is not a claim, rather a necessary discussion before accepting that this experiment provides evidence to "continuous improvement" in a stable environment. I consider that it should be called continuous adaptation to the experiment's growth medium. The first generation E.coli of this experiment comes from the real world where it spent significant energy to preserve membrane potential to the changing electrolyte concentrations of its habitat, to adapt to temperature changes and nutritional content as well as producing multiple enzymes to produce energy from many non-glucose substrates. The hospitable and stable environment provided in this experiment is expected to result in selective atrophy of the aforementioned metabolic features of the bacterium that it gained to survive harsh living conditions; allowing more energy to be spent on growth and reproduction rather than metabolic defensive buffers, competition, etc. The researcher has to disprove this interpretation before concluding that continuous improvement takes place even in stable conditions. These bacteria are still adapting to this new friendly habitat (no fluctuations in sodium, phosphate, potassium, magnesium, citrate, ammonium concentrations, temperature, nutrition ) even if it has been going on for 30 years (which is not a long time) especially considering that it is markedly different from what the bacteria have evolved in millions of years. The atrophy of previously essential functions with environmental change has been described in many species even in vertebrates in Galapagos.

      Ezgi UmutEzgi Umut9 dagen geleden
    • @Ezgi Umut " It is more likely that the outcome (growth rate) is better not because of progress, but rather from the atrophy of other metabolic functions that are necessary for life in the real world" This is your claim, present your evidence to support it.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS910 dagen geleden
    • @Crispr CAS9 the ability to grow without glucose (ex. metabolizing citrate) is a different discussion that takes place during the video. However, the main topic of interest that the researcher emphasizes at the conclusion is the constant improvement of the growth rate which concerns the bacteria incubated at the standard DM25 liquid medium (10% glucose). It is more likely that the outcome (growth rate) is better not because of progress, but rather from the atrophy of other metabolic functions that are necessary for life in the real world, that have become obsolete in this experiment method.

      Ezgi UmutEzgi Umut10 dagen geleden
    • "it is only an action of increasing the activity of only one vital metabolic function (growth by using glucose)" The interesting finding is that are able to grow in the complete absence of glucose. Are you sure you watched the video?

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS910 dagen geleden
  • “33 years ago, even on weekends ever since ..” Bacteria are annoyingly hard workers.

    hoiy vinosahoiy vinosa10 dagen geleden
  • I'm put in mind of 'The Outer Limits' episode 'Wolf 359'.

    Blue FiveBlue Five11 dagen geleden
  • This reminds me of Primer

    Soapy's ThoughtsSoapy's Thoughts11 dagen geleden
  • Evolution is Adaptation Adaptability

    Yout FunnyYout Funny11 dagen geleden
    • i just love the hippie labcoat at 11.50 :-) ....sadly not gonna happen in my lab :-(

      hoiy vinosahoiy vinosa10 dagen geleden
  • Paper towels? Um, NO. Dish cloths, hand towels, sponges, all can be - get this - *WASHED* to sanitize them. No need, at ALL, to waste trees in order to wipe down the counter, stove, etc. It's WAY too wasteful to use paper towels! _SHAME on you,_ for promoting such wastefulness!!

    Mary Ann BittleMary Ann Bittle11 dagen geleden
  • Damn, the ThermoFisher ad was awesome. Don't know what it was but the music and video were very satisfying:)

    Robe005Robe00511 dagen geleden
  • No we're not viewing evolution as it happens. You are describing 'minor evolution' which is an adaptation to environment. It's still the same bug. It hasn't turned into another kind of bacteria. And the corn is still corn. Major evolution would result in a different bacterium or a different plant. I wish you evolutionists would stop lying to us. Stop using the smoke screen of minor evolution to prove that major evolution is a fact.

    Fred BachFred Bach11 dagen geleden
    • ​@Fred Bach "That was a library addition using Crisper " I don't know which experiment you're talking about, but it isn't any of the ones featured in this video. "Let me know when it turns into something that is not an E-coli." 'E coli' is a species designation, and species designations are human labels for human abstractions of populations. A sub population of E coli is no longer E coli when humans decide it, and by the ecotype conception of species delimitation the Ara-3 strain is already a new species. "Does the citrate ability come via the Rogues' Gallery or from elsewhere in the genome?" The citrate ability comes from a novel mutation, as confirmed by genomic sequencing of the ancestral and descendant strains. " If the latter, what will happen if you took the citrate away for 75000 generations? Might it lose its ability to handle citrate? " Sounds like you just suggested it can't be evolution if *more* evolution happens afterwards. I hope that isn't what you intended, since that would be silly.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS910 dagen geleden
    • @Crispr CAS9 the bugs were given a Rogues gallery of what compounds to be immune to. For instance the square carbon ring in penicillin family drugs. That was a library addition using Crisper.... rather than a genetic mutation. Your username comes from that process. It's still an E-coli with a bigger library and a genetic variation. This ability is given to most lifeforms. Let me know when it turns into something that is not an E-coli. Does the citrate ability come via the Rogues' Gallery or from elsewhere in the genome? If the latter, what will happen if you took the citrate away for 75000 generations? Might it lose its ability to handle citrate? This reminds me of the moths in England that turned from a light shade to a dark shade and back to light again when the air pollution was cleaned up. I know you will attribute that to preditors. You actually need to do the other half of the experiment and put the new bug in an old environment for 75000 generations and see what it gains and loses.

      Fred BachFred Bach10 dagen geleden
    • lots of small changes eventually make large changes...

      Null PointerNull Pointer11 dagen geleden
    • "No we're not viewing evolution as it happens." Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "It's still the same bug." It isn't the same, the descendant can use citrate as a sole carbon source, which the ancestor could not. They have identified the mutations responsible, which were not present in the ancestor. It is demonstrably different. "It hasn't turned into another kind of bacteria. " 'Kind' is a nonsense word without any scientific validity. "Major evolution would result in a different bacterium" Then mission accomplished, as explained above. "or a different plant." If any of the descendants of bacteria were plants, that would disprove evolution. Asking as evidence for a thing something that would actually disprove that thing is a fairly clear indication you don't understand the subject in the first place.

      Crispr CAS9Crispr CAS911 dagen geleden
  • And in 30 more years (equivalent to 3 million years from the start), still nothing cool happened. Yawn.

    Oogie PadoogieOogie Padoogie11 dagen geleden
  • Time for flask beer pong?

    Fred LeonardFred Leonard11 dagen geleden
  • when you touch the elbow for said hi don't keep social distance needed for prevent covid

    patricio patriciopatricio patricio12 dagen geleden
  • New Hollywood movie plot, Planet of the Bacteria.

    Adnan haiderAdnan haider12 dagen geleden
    • So, as opposed to a Grey Goo scenario (Out of control Nano-Bot Replicators), this would be a Green Goo scenario?

      Polaris RavenPolaris Raven10 dagen geleden
  • So "life finds a way" even if it doesn't need to?

    random black holerandom black hole12 dagen geleden
  • Imagine if we are just an experiment inside an alien race flask, and we die because otherwise the experiment would become unmanageable.

    Jorjon JorjonJorjon Jorjon12 dagen geleden